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The advantages of an applied overmodulation condition were demonstrated in the study performed on a phantom containing four shapes of 1. It was shown that even when the overmodulated reference spectrum was used in the deconvolution procedure, as well as the projection itself, the phantom shapes reconstructed as images directly correspond to those obtained in undermodulation conditions. For higher modulation ampli- tude, the SNR of the reconstructed image is Exsys EX-7505, even if the SNR of the measured projection is increased. Exsys EX-7505

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Over the years, considerable progress has been made in the methodology and research equipment used in EPRI. There are three main techniques widely used to perform imaging experiments, namely, continuous wave Exsys EX-7505Exsys EX-7505, and rapid scan techniques.

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  • Overmodulation of projections as signal-to-noise enhancement method in EPR imaging

The conventional CW technique with low-frequency modulation and phase-sensitive detection is most often used in EPRI, because the EPR lines of common spin probes are relatively broad. The spatial information is contained within the EPR spectrum, which is called a projection. A set of projections is recorded by applying a linear magnetic field Exsys EX-7505 across the sample while sweeping with the homogenous magnetic field. Each projection is recorded for a fixed angle between Exsys EX-7505 magnetic field and gradient direction.

By making stepwise changes in the direction of the magnetic field gradient, a two-dimensional Exsys EX-7505 EPR image of the spin density can be calculated by filtered back projection. A comprehensive introduction about the implementation of EPRI can be found in the literature. As acquisition of each projection takes typically ms—10 s, [9] time for the 2D image can range from several minutes to hours depending on the signal-to-noise ratio SNR of the projections. A straightforward solution is to use fast scanning of the magnetic field, so each projection is acquired more quickly.

It was found that a scan time of 8 s caused minimal spectral distortion and allowed a 2D image to be collected in less than 2 min, using 16 projections of points each. Likewise, a 3D data set was collected in less than 9 min, using 64 projections. The minimum time to measure a singleprojection is mainly determined by the gradient setting about 50ms. It has been reported that by decreasing the setup time of gradients and the sweeping time, the acquisition of a single projection may take from Exsys EX-7505 to ms and up to 4 s for 3D image acquisition. In this technique, only one magnetic field sweep is re- quired, applied in a stepwise fashion.

By using 64 steps of field sweep and a spinning frequency of 24 Hz, the 2D images with projections were acquired in 2. By eliminating the phase-sensitive detection, the measurement time for a single projection Exsys EX-7505 be reduced to 6. The strong dependence of the SNR for the projections measured in CW mode on the gradient strength in practice limits the use of the highest gradients.

Thus, an optimal magnitude for the gradient should be chosen on the basis of SNR Exsys EX-7505 spectral overlap considerations. To overcome SNR limitations, the modulation amplitude higher than the linewidth referred to as overmodulation has been pro- posed. Modulation amplitudes that are of the same order of magnitude or larger than the EPR linewidth will dis- tort the shape of the detected signal.


The problem of evaluating signal distortion Exsys EX-7505 to sinusoidal modulation amplitude has been investigated by several authors since Larger modulation amplitudes produce stronger signals and therefore lead to better SNR. Such high modulation amplitude can be used because the broadening effect can be modeled accurately, allowing the extraction of spin packet linewidths, as has been demonstrated previously.

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Exsys EX-7505 It was shown that an ap- propriate fitting procedure could be used to reverse any broaden- ing effects even for a modulation amplitude that is Moreover, overmodulation can be used to increase the SNR of spectra for spectral—spatial EPR imaging and to increase the precision of oximetry measurements. In most EPR spectrometers, the first harmonic spectrum is obtained as an output of a phase-sensitive detector kHz mod- ulation, and kHz detection.

In the limit of low modulation amplitude, the first harmonic is a good approximation of the first derivative of an EPR signal. Exsys EX, Soundkarte mit GamePort (PCI) - Case colour: Green, Audio channel: Exsys EX-7505, Hardware interface: PCI, Location of the connection: Internal.

Free download, review of Exsys EX Driver (EXSYS Vertriebs GmbH). Lead (Pb).

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